16b

Hard surfaces tend to begin at a depth of 20 cm. As time progresses, looser layers become thinner and thinner. Before sand’s ability to attenuate impact is reduced by too much, the hard layer must be broken up using a small shovel or garden cultivator. This is typically done in intervals of 2 to 5 years on playgrounds where this is a problem.


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Frozen impact area – does it matter?

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Non-complying exercise equipment – what to do with?